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1. NRRT 630Protected Areas and Global Conservation保护区与全球环境保护

This course provides the essential background that protected area managers need in order to communicate with a variety of audiences about the history and evolution of PAs and the important ecosystem services (cultural, emotional, utilitarian, and ecological) that protected areas provide. The history and status of international agreements that support protected areas and biological conservation will provide context for the role of individual and systems of protected areas. Participants will expand their understanding of management by objectives by studying international categories of protected areas, including those outlined by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). International and national level targets for biodiversity conservation and the methods used to evaluate the progress towards these targets (including gap analysis) will empower students as leaders in reaching these goals.

Students will learn the fundamentals of conservation biology and apply these ecological concepts to the design and management of protected areas. Students will be introduced to population dynamics, species niches, and habitat requirements. In addition, the positive economic benefits of PAs will be discussed along with methods to further these benefits.



Textbook: Worboys, G., Lockwood, M., Kothari, A., Feary, S., and Pulsford, I. 2015. Protected Area Governance and Management. Canberra: ANU Press. 992 pp. ISBN (online): 9781925021691.


Faculty: Dr. Stuart P.Cottrell

教师:斯图尔特 P. 科特雷尔博士

2. NRRT 631Protected Area Planning and Management保护区规划与管理

Successful protected area management is facilitated by forward-thinking systems design, efficient allocation of resources and personnel, and timely and appropriate responses to changes in conditions, all of which rely on effective planning. Nevertheless, the development of realistic plans with clear and measurable objectives, thresholds for action, and procedures for implementation is an ongoing challenge for managers. This course will demystify the essential logic common to all good planning, deconstruct the elements of different planning frameworks, and give students the tools to apply those frameworks at a range of levels and in a variety of situations. Through hands-on learning, students will gain competence at participatory planning methods, development of implementation schedules, adaptive management, and evaluation of management effectiveness.


Textbook: Worboys, G., Lockwood, M., Kothari, A., Feary, S., and Pulsford, I. 2015. Protected Area Governance and Management. Canberra: ANU Press. 992 pp. ISBN (online): 9781925021691.


Faculty: Donnelly Maureen


3. NTEC 601Tourism Development in Protected Areas 自然保护区的旅游开发与利用

Through the study of this course, students will be able to master the basic theory and knowledge of tourism development and utilization of nature reserves. This course will enable students to master the investigation and evaluation methods of tourism resources in nature reserves, master the skills of tourism resource development and planning, and improve the ability of analyzing and solving practical problems. Students can combine the general principle and practice of tourism development in nature reserves through the analysis of practical cases of tourism development and utilization in nature reserves.


Textbook: Mei Y. Research on the Protective Development of Tourism Geological Resources in Nature Reserves. Beijing: Science Press, 2016.


Faculty: Xingming LiXiang Zhang


4. NTEC 602Ecosystem Services Monitoring and Evaluations in Protected Areas保护区自然生态系统服务功能监测与评估

Ecosystem goods and services produce the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from the protected areas – clean air and water, fertile soil, greenhouse gas sequestration, etc. This course focuses on the monitoring and evaluations of ecosystems services of the protected areas, specifically: (1) plot-level monitoring data collection in protected areas (i.e. soil and water quality, biodiversity, etc.); (2) large scale ecosystem monitoring using remote sensing data; (3) ecosystem service assessments for the protected areas. This course will use examples from around the world (i.e. the world’s first national park - Yellowstone, Canada’s Banff National Park, protected areas in the tropics and African countries, etc.) to illustrate the application of concepts and methods. Special needs and challenges in China’s protected areas will also be introduced and discussed. After this course, students’ will have a global view of protected area conservation and resource management and understand the issues and principals in monitoring and evaluating ecosystem services in protected areas.

自然保护区为我们提供了维持生命所需要的大量产品和生态系统服务功能 – 清洁的空气和水,肥沃的土壤,温室气体的固定等。本课程聚焦保护区生态系统服务功能的监测与评估,具体体现在:(1)保护区中样地尺度的监测数据收集(如土壤和水质,生物多样性等);(2)基于遥感数据的大尺度生态系统监测;(3)保护区生态系统服务功能评估。本课程将使用全球著名的自然保护区(如美国黄石国家公园,加拿大班夫国家公园及非洲、环赤道地区的保护区等)作为案例,阐述自然保护生态系统服务功能的概念、评估方法和应用。我们同时会着重介绍与讨论中国自然保护区所面临的需求与挑战。在完成本课程之后,学生将会了解全球自然保护区的保护与资源管理现状,并对自然保护区生态系统服务功能的监测与评估中的原则及面临的问题有更加深入的理解。

Textbook: Lockwood, M., Worboys, G. and Kothari, A. Managing Protected Areas: A Global Guide (1st Edition) . London, UK/Sterling, VA, USA: Earthscan, 2006. ISBN-10: 1844073025


Faculty: Feng Zhao, Danxia Song, Man Qi, Tian Xia


5. NRRT 634Protected Area History, Policy, Governance, and Finance 保护区的历史、政策、治理与财政

This course introduces how protected area law, policy, governance, and finance has evolved and is implemented at local, regional, national, and international levels. The course will address how laws and policies on issues such as energy and mining, agriculture, tourism, national security, transportation, and land and sea use affect protected areas. Students will learn how governmental institutions, multilateral agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia, the private sector, and civil society interact in formulating and implementing protected area laws and policies and in shared governance and partnerships. Students will explore how conflicting political, economic, and social interests and values vie for influence and exert power in the realm of protected area policy, as well as how science plays a role in the policy process and competes with other, frequently powerful, policy-shaping forces. The global nature of many environmental challenges means Protected Area Managers also need to understand key actors, processes, and institutions involved in international policy, governance, and finance. We will review global conventions, organizations, and programs on issues such as biodiversity loss, climate change, conservation of natural and cultural heritage, and management of the world’s wetlands, wildlife, fisheries, and oceans. Finally, we will review the many ways protected areas agencies generate revenue, access and use government budgets, and obtain additional resources from other sources to be able to fulfill their mandates.


Textbook: Worboys, G., Lockwood, M., Kothari, A., Feary, S., and Pulsford, I. 2015. Protected Area Governance and Management. Canberra: ANU Press. 992 pp. ISBN (online): 9781925021691.


Faculty: Gruby Rebecca


6. NRRT 635Protected Area Infrastructure and Emerging Technology 保护区基础设施与新兴技术

This course will provide students with knowledge, skills, and competencies needed to plan, create, manage, and maintain infrastructure in protected areas. Infrastructure plays an important role in protected areas and utilizes a large portion of developmental and operational costs. It provides access for visitors, resource protection, as well as safety and experiential opportunities. Roads, trails, buildings, energy, waste management, interpretation structures, and communication are but a few elements of infrastructure that all protected area professionals must understand. Students will acquire hands-on experience in the planning and implementation of on-the-ground projects, development strategies, site analysis, contractor and volunteer management, as well as monitoring and maintenance programs. The course will expose student to existing and emerging technologies that can aid protected area managers in achieving their goals (i.e. GIS, telemetry, camera traps, drones, SMART, etc.).


Textbook: Manfredo, Michael et al. Wildlife Viewing, A Management Handbook. Oregon State University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-87071-548-8.


Faculty: Wurz James


7. NTEC 603Ecological and Social Impacts of Nature-based Tourism 自然旅游的生态和社会影响与调控

The purpose of this course is to enable students to acquire the knowledge, methods and skills needed to manage and regulate the impact of natural tourism, and on this basis, to think deeply about the sustainable development of tourism. Through the study of this course, students can understand the concept and basic theory of natural tourism, master the academic methods of observing and measuring the ecological and social impact of natural tourism, explore the regulation and control mode of its impact, form a broad vision and practical ability of tourism research, and improve the academic research ability. Through the study and analysis of different cases, students can master the similarities and differences of the impact of natural tourism in different regions on the ecological and social environment, and be able to diagnose the environment of natural tourism destinations, so as to put forward targeted suggestions and measures of regulation. It will lay a foundation for the students of this major to engage in tourism planning and management in the future. In addition, the content of this course also includes natural tourism and environmental education, which provides more thinking and research directions for the effective management of natural tourism. This course will also combine case-based learning with hot topics in the development of natural tourism in China and even overseas, so that students can have more thinking and innovation while mastering new knowledge.


Textbook: Newsome, D. and Moore, S. A. Natural Area Tourism: Ecologyimpacts and management[M]. Sichuan: Sichuan University Press, 2020.


Faculty: Juan Feng Xiaofang Wang


8. NRRT 637Leadership, Management, and Protected Areas 领导力、管理与保护区

This course will provide students with knowledge, skills, and competencies needed to think broadly about leadership and leadership development at the individual and organizational levels. It is designed to ensure an understanding of key concepts and approaches to leadership and an ability to compare and contrast them with management concepts and approaches. Students will acquire hands-on experience in the development of their own personal leadership plan and consider how the approach we use could be replicated in future work groups to build cohesion and focus on the development of leadership and management skills of teams of colleagues and employees. In addition, critical management and leadership topics such as building inclusivity and equity in protected area institutions and managing people and teams effectively will be presented. The role of volunteers and managing volunteer programs, institutional hiring options, and the role of capacity development will be featured. New and emerging topics in leadership and management will also be included and case studies presented will be linked to current topics in protected area management and conservation.


Textbook: Kouzes, James M.; Posner, Barry Z. (2002). The Leadership Challenge.  Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.


Faculty: Dr. Salerno JonDr. Knight David


9. NTEC 604Big Data Processing and Analysis for Protected Area Management  基于大数据处理与分析的自然保护区管理

Management decisions for protected areas should be guided by the best available information. Managers must take into consideration existing protected area frameworks while understanding both the social and ecological context to the challenges facing their protected areas. This course presents methods and examples for processing and analyzing big geospatial data to inform management decisions, especially when working with buffer zone communities and stakeholders. Students will have the ability to process and analyze common geospatial data used in protected area management, with several well-designed themes around key ecosystem components in the protected area, such as forest health, biodiversity, air quality, water quality, soil fertility, and so on. Students will learn how to effectively manage data to transform information into action on the ground.


Textbook: Learning materials and data will be provided by instructors.


Faculty: Wenxia Tan, Jie Zhou, Jian Fang, Xiran Li


10. NRRT 639SEMINAR: Emerging Threats and New Frontiers in Protected Area Management 研讨课:保护区管理中的新领域和新威胁

This course examines emerging threats and frontiers in protected areas that managers will have to confront. Issues such as climate change, invasive species, novel ecosystems, mega-development projects, lack of sustainable funding, and exclusivity will be addressed as important challenges to protected areas. Students practice methods and tools to address these threats and ensure the protection of the natural resource base. Through case studies student will engage in a scenario and action planning process to evaluate proposed mitigation strategies including compensation for ecosystem services, citizen science, and decarbonization. Recent developments in protected area management such as protection of night skies and natural sounds will be explored.

该课程旨在探讨管理者不得不面对的保护区新兴威胁和新问题。气候变化、物种入侵、新型生态系统、大型开发项目、缺乏可持续资金以及排他性因素等问题都是保护区面临的重要挑战。学生应掌握解决这些威胁、确保保护区自然资源基底保护的方法技能及具体实践能力。通过案例学习,学生应能结合某一情境和行动规划过程,评估给出的保护区威胁消除战略,包括生态系统服务补偿 、公民科学和去碳化战略。保护区夜空保护、自然之音保护等新问题也会在课程中进行探讨。

Textbook: A variety of journal articles, international publications, and planning documents will be used to support class lectures and provide case studies.


Faculty: Dr. Gavin MichaelDr. Jones Kelly


11. NRRT 640Protected Area Communication保护区沟通

This course is designed to empower protected area managers with the tools and specific approaches that will enable them to communicate effectively with diverse audiences about the objectives of their protected areas. This course includes communication and message planning, audience analysis, development of specific communication strategies, communication outreach and engagement, and evaluation of communication efforts. Specific communication approaches such as thematic interpretation, environmental education, engaging the media, and social media, will all be developed with detailed content, case studies, and student projects. Each unit will focus on a specific protected area. Towards the end of the course we will discuss communication good practice that applies to a protected area system as a whole. In addition, effective team communication will be discussed, as a tool for improving overall management effectiveness and for improved coordination in overall message dissemination with the public.


Textbook: Brochu, L.; Merriman, T. (2002). Personal Interpretation. Singapore: National Association for Interpretation.


Faculty: Jerry Vaske; Teel Tara


12. NTEC 605Smart Technologies and Application in Protected Arears  自然旅游中的智慧技术及其应用

This course aims to enable students to understand the general situation, dynamics and trends of smart tourism, master the HTML language, analyze the DOM structure of the UGC travel website, and use the Huochetou Data collector software to analyze the travel data from UGC websites. It also includes the use of Python-based word categorization methods to collect and classify traveler generated content. Through case analysis, students can master the framework of major big data platforms in the tourism industry through mobile phone signaling data in the 5G era, tourist data procurement, and tourist spatio-temporal footprint analysis. This course will enable students to master the application of digital technology in natural heritage sites or tourist destinations through instruction, self-study and exchanges, case analysis, online learning platforms, research teaching and debates.


Textbook: Stephen Haag, Maeve Cummings. (2010). Management Information Systems for the Information Age. (Chinese and English original textbook)


Faculty: Jian Gong


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